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This style manual is confusing.

When do you use a hyphen? A simple enough question but how do you find the answer in your style manual? You need to know if it forms a compound adjective or adverb and is the compound permanent or temporary. What?

APA Citation Style

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the citation style standard for social scientific research. The APA format manual is more than 900 pages. If you're doing a final edit, do you know what term to look up when you have a question?

Our APA Manual of Style experts can help finalize the editing and formatting of your documents so that your submission is compelling, clean and coherent.

Coursework in subjects such as psychology, sociology, nursing, medicine and communication typical require APA style. APA format is our default for all documents if you do not request a specific citation style.

MLA Citation Style

The MLA Handbook is the premier guide for the Modern Language Association's citation style instructions for works written in liberal arts and the humanities; i.e., English courses and American studies. MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. When using MLA format, consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.

Chicago Style

TheChicago Manual of Style is the citation style standard in the industry for nonfiction and fiction manuscripts, magazine articles and trade journals. Publishers may change some elements of the article or manuscript to conform to house style, but they appreciate receiving your manuscript in Chicago format.

Our Chicago Manual of Style experts can help finalize the editing and formatting of your documents so that your submission is compelling, clean and coherent.

Chicago Style (CSM) offers two approaches: 1) a citation/sequence system and, 2) a name/year system. Denoted mainly by its use of footnotes or endnotes, The Chicago Manual of Style is a general style guideline for publishing commonly used academically in musicology, history, art history, women's studies and theology.

Turabian Citation Style

Turabian is derived from A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations developed for the University of Chicago and published by the University of Chicago Press. Turabian focuses on student papers, dissertations and theses. Except for minor differences, it is the same as the more general guide The Chicago Manual of Style. Many journals employing Chicago Style (CSM) accept Turabian formatting.

Turabian contrasts sharply with other guidelines such as MLA style and APA style. The Turabian method originated with the use of footnotes or endnotes instead of in-text citations employed by MLA and APA format. In recent editions, Turabian has incorporated guidelines for in-text, parenthetical references.

Harvard Citation Style

The Harvard Citation Style originated the use of the author-date system—or parenthetical system—that is also in use by APA format, MLA and Chicago manuals for referencing. The main advantage of Harvard referencing is that someone familiar with a field is able to identify a citation without having to check it in the reference list. Another advantage of referencing in Harvard Style is the lack of cumbersome renumbering when changing in-text reference order. However, Harvard referencing requires more space; its rules can be confusing or unclear for non-academic citations, particularly those without a personal author; and the reference system in Harvard Citation Style may be distracting to people unfamiliar with peer-reviewed journal articles.

The Elements of International English Style

With the publication of The Elements of International English style, Dr. Edmond Weiss has provided writers a 'Strunk and White' for the 21st Century and the Internet. The book is a presentation of coherent principles—simplicity, clarity, correspondence, cultural adaptation; through rules of usage presented as 57 tactics for writers; and through numerous illustrations. This is citation Style Formatting for writers of English in a global environment.

Vancouver Citation Style

The Vancouver Style guidelines (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication and the American Medical Association Manual of Style. Vancouver Style uses notational in–text referencing. The Vancouver Style is primarily for publications in medicine, biomedicine, medical technology and allied health sciences.

Editing Canadian English – 2nd Edition

Editing Canadian English – 2nd Edition is the essential Canadian guide – and reference shelf companion to The Chicago Manual of Style and The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Editing Canadian English handles the style issues of writing in 'Canadian' and sorts out the distinctions between UK and American editorial style and language usage. Overall, this guide outlines where convention dictates certain usage and where a style decision comes down to choice. The four authors, with over one hundred years of editing experience among them, show people how to make their own informed and consistent choices when dealing with peculiarly Canadian questions of usage.

The Canadian Style: A Guide to Writing and Editing

The Canadian Style: A Guide to Writing and Editing is cross-referenced, and its indexed chapters make it a convenient reference guide. The revised edition contrasts Canadian vs. American and UK spellings, provides concise and up-to-date information regarding the questions of when to capitalize, and addresses issues of usage.

The Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers 6th edition

The Style Manual: For authors, editors and printers 6th edition, first published in 1966, provides guidance and recommendations for anyone having the task of preparing material for publication in print or electronic format.

This sixth edition is a substantial revision, in response to the extensive changes in the publishing industry since the previous edition of 1994. It contains detailed advice on publishing in both print and electronic formats; it emphasizes the importance of focusing on the audience's needs when planning, structuring, writing, designing and editing a publication; and reflects a more multicultural and global outlook that recognizes the influence of the Internet on publishing.

The procedural steps in publishing form the underlying structure of this new edition. Advice is given on how to plan, undertake and evaluate a publishing document. General practices in editing, design, electronic publishing, indexing and printing fields are also discussed.

CSE Citation Style

Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers is produced by The Council of Science Editors (CSE). It offers two approaches: 1) a citation/sequence system and, 2) a name/year system. Inserted at the point of reference, superscripted numbers interact with sequentially numbered entries in a References list located at the end of the manuscript or other text. The CSE follow standards for citation found in National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation (1991). Mainly the biological sciences use CSE citation.

ITP Citation Style

The ITP Writing & Style Handbook, a guide to scholarly writing at ITP, is based on the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual. The manual include various grammar and text formatting conventions, title page guides, writing style suggestions, and many other useful explanations.

ASA Citation Style

The American Sociological Association Style Guide is a widely accepted format for writing that specifies the use of footnotes, in-text citations and references. This easy to use citation style has fewer formal requirements than MLA and Chicago. ASA is very similar in appearance and function to APA format in its requirement of the year of publication as essential information by using “author-date” parenthetical referencing and a Reference section with the date closely following the author(s). ASA also requires footnotes be used only to "cite material of limited availability or to add information presented in a table" (Salinas 2008).


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